Here is a quick overview of the origins and foundations of the city of Sacramento. Originally Sacramento was Mexican territory, but remain largely unpopulated until the Swiss pioneer John Sutter arrived in 1939. John Augustus Sutter established his little empire of New Helvetia, of which what is now known to be Sacramento was a part of, and constructed a fort named Sutter’s fort which became his base for operation in 1841. After the Mexican-American War in 1846, New Helvetia came under U.S. control. After gold had been discovered at John Shutter’s mill in 1948, the city of Sacramento began to develop more rapidly and this became the beginning of the California Gold Rush, with prospector’s filling in the embarcadero that John Sutter Sr. had established. Sacramento was named after the Sacramento River which lies on the western border. Sacramento lies where the American River and Sacramento River meet, though this was a perfect place for economic growth the city but also experienced a lot of flooding and fires before the city interiors were properly developed. However, even after substantial development Sacramento still experienced severe flooding in its early development years (1850-1860) Flooding destroyed huge amounts of merchandise and set back the economy greatly during that period, Sacramento was also plagued with the horrible cholera epidemic in 1950 which left nearly 1000 people dead and the majority of the remaining population fled. After this, Sutter’s empire slowly fell, New Helvetia collapsed by 1852, and Sutter’s fort became abandoned. The Embarcadero that had once determined the growth and economy of Sacramento no longer held this place completely, 1852 was a year of economic diversification and regrowth for Sacramento, numerous fires devastated the city and huge portions had to be rebuilt. Work on the Sacramento railroad began in 1855, shortly followed by the civil war in 1861-1900.