The discovery of gold in the Sacramento Valley, arguably one of the most important events to shape American history during the beginning of the 19th century, was the primary event that initiated the Gold Rush. As word travelled of this significant news, thousands of people made there way to California field by the promise of treasure. The influx of people and industry fueled by the Gold Rush sped up California’s entrance to the US as the 31st state. California quickly went through the surface gold in just a couple years. As it became increasingly difficult to find gold, the growing industrialization of mining drove more and more miners from the role of independent gold diggers into wage labors. A new hydraulic method of mining allowed for more in-depth excavation and resulted in immense profits but ultimately destroyed much of the surrounding landscape.Though the gold rush is an incredibly important part of Sacramento’s history, it’s only one part of the story. Sacramento has a rich and diverse history that points to its spirit of innovation and independence. For example, crippling floods at the end of 1861 and the beginning of 1862 brought about such devastation that the very infrastructure of the city was in question. Sacramento rose to the occasion, however, and the city residents decided to build additional levees. The height of the levee was in dispute between two main camps of citizens: those who wanted a small rise in elevation and those who wanted a significantly larger increase to accommodate the basements of Sacramento businesses. The higher levee height camp eventually won, resulting in the raising of city blocks in 1868. There was a great deal of uneven pavement and accommodations in the form of planks while the construction was underway. By 1873, the construction was complete, and one of the interesting results was that the first floors of many buildings became basements and left the second floors as the new main floors. Today, these 19th-century basements are known as the “Sacramento Underground.”With the introduction of the railroad and refrigeration to the west, it became possible for Sacramento to cash in on the value of fruit. As a result, from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century, local ranches that had previously profited from grain began to go bankrupt and sell off their land, a time which became known as the “land boom.” The new owners, looking to profit from the popularity of fruit, irrigated hundreds of thousands of acres of land in the Sacramento Valley, spurring another economic boom which lasted until the Great Depression.Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal helped to pull Sacramento out of the crippling effects of the Great Depression. The Works Project Administration projects was responsible for building highways, public buildings, and local airports around the Sacramento area. As the state capital, Sacramento was an important location for a lot of the social and cultural movements in the late 20th century. For example, Cesar Chavez led the United Farm Workers in a march to Sacramento in 1966. Today, Sacramento continues to thrive economically, socially, and culturally. In 2002, Time magazine recognized Sacramento as the most diverse and integrated places to live in America.